1) Sabrina ABENI, University of L’Aquila, Italy
The Mother’s Ghost: il rapporto madre/figlia nelle riscritture postmoderne di Cenerentola
La figura di Cenerentola viene comunemente associata a una fanciulla inerme, sola, orfana di madre, dimenticata dal padre e vessata da matrigna e sorellastre: la figura materna positiva sembra infatti morire nelle prime righe della fiabe, lasciando la figlia in balia di una situazione famigliare avversa. Eppure la madre non scompare veramente, nelle versioni orali e popolari della storia infatti ritorna sotto varie forme per aiutare la figlia; tale motivo, tralasciato dal testo di Perrault, si ritrova invece nella versione dei Grimm, dove lo spirito della madre viene incarnato da elementi della natura come l’albero di nocciolo che le fornisce le vesti per il ballo e le colombe che l’assistono e che si vendicheranno per i torti che ella ha subito. Il vero regista della storia sarebbe dunque un personaggio fisicamente assente, che entra nella spietata e cruenta competizione tra madri per assicurare un futuro migliore alle figlie attraverso il matrimonio con un buon partito. Nelle riscritture postmoderne di Cenerentola si tende dunque a rivalutare la funzione della madre defunta, che assisterebbe la figlia in un difficile percorso iniziatico necessario per imparare ad affrontare le difficoltà della vita ed essere pronta per la vita adulta. Riscritture postmoderne che hanno ripreso il motivo della madre defunta sono state realizzate da autrici come Angela Carter, Jane Yolen, Tanith Lee e Barbara G. Walker. In esse la madre di Cenerentola è l’autentica plot-maker, colei che conduce la trama e la indirizza verso l’obiettivo prefissato. In questo intervento verranno in particolare analizzati Ashputtle or the mother’s Ghost di Angela Carter e Cinder-Helle di Barbara G. Walker, due testi che, pur nelle loro differenze, ritengono centrale la guida della madre durante il difficile percorso di Cenerentola per liberarsi dalla degradazione a cui è sottoposta, realizzando un happy-end fiabesco voluto dalla madre/regista, invisibile ma fondamentale.
2) Daniel ARANDA, IUT de La Roche-sur-Yon, University of Nantes, France
Textual adaptations of Cinderella or the little glass slipper by Perrault in French narrative children’s literature (1850-1900)
We examine the transformations affecting the text “Cinderella” by Perrault in French children’s literature from 1850 to 1900. Three technical options have been adopted: rolling over the full text; changing it to a greater or lesser degree; or writing a wholly new text along the lines of the same story. In the latter two cases, the text becomes shorter than the original because the story is simplified. However, the increase principle occurs occasionally. Thus, the wedding episode might be developed, and in the idealized imagery (“imageries d’Épinal” in French) such a scene with an illustration tagged on to it will be accompanied by a more elaborate caption than the few words provided by Perrault: here, the picture controls the volume of its associated text, adding to or deducting from it. The objectives of these transformations were not limited to bringing within children’s reach a story dating back to about two hundred years ago, and meant for an audience of worldly adults. The 19th century also bent Perrault’s classical morality. Two contradictory logics for redevelopment are evident. The first pertains to a conservative ideology that reduces the evocation of love, mitigates what might sharpen a little girl’s coquetry, imposes a doleful version of this heroine “who deserved, for her past sufferings, the happiness that awaited her” (1868 version). The second follows a more “romantic” or individualistic ideology: for a heroine whose name can be revealed (“Marguerite / Daisy”), who in this or that version takes the initiative to go see her godmother and tell her about her troubles instead of crying alone, the final sentence of the story will consecrate her triumph over the advantageous establishment of persecuting shrews. In both cases, Perrault’s worldly ethics, which Cinderella’s attitude towards her stepsisters translates so happily in his kindly irony and his sovereign sociability, becomes undetectable.
3) Sandra BECKETT, Brock University, Canada
Cinderella, or The Little Glass Slipper: A Fairy Tale for All Ages
The story of Cinderella has been recontextualized, revisioned, and retold time and time again by authors, illustrators, filmmakers, musicians, and artists around the world. The girl in the glass slippers has crossed geographical and cultural boundaries effortlessly, her story has been appropriated in every conceivable literary genre and recycled in all the different media, and she herself has become a universal icon, recognizable merely by her lost slipper. “Cinderella” is widely considered to be a children’s favourite from the classic fairy tale canon, a fact that is largely due to Walt Disney’s animated film version. “Cinderella” is not just a story for children, however; it has wide appeal with audiences of all ages. This paper proposes to examine a few of the many contemporary literary retellings that target a crossover audience of both children and adults.
The corpus will comprise a selection of retellings from various Western cultures, all of which have been published since 1975. These will include, among others, the accordion artist’s book Cendrillon (1976) by the Swiss artist Warja Lavater; the visual retelling published in Japan, in Le Monde des ronds et des carrés (The world of circles and squares, 1975), by the French comics artist Jean Ache; Roberto Innocenti’s Cinderella (1983), commissioned by the Swiss publisher Étienne Delessert; the Black French artist Kelek’s innovative visual rendition in Contes (1986); and William Wegman’s picture-book edition Cinderella (1997). These authors and illustrators use a variety of genres and narrative strategies to recast the well-known tale for an audience of young and old alike.
4) Cecilia BELLO-MINCIACCHI, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy-manca versione inglese
“La Cenerentola” di Patrizia Vicinelli: libertà e identità femminile per le detenute di Rebibbia
Tra il dicembre 1977 e il maggio 1978 Patrizia Vicinelli, poetessa e performer bolognese (1943-1991) in quei mesi detenuta a Rebibbia, realizzò una pièce rappresentata a porte chiuse, con la sola presenza di alcuni giornalisti: Cenerentola, libero adattamento in sette quadri e sei ballate. La messa in scena ebbe vasta risonanza sui quotidiani ma il testo apparve soltanto postumo a cura di Niva Lorenzini (in «Poetiche», 4-5, 1997, pp. 3-26), ora ripubblicato nel volume che raccoglie l’opera completa della poetessa, Patrizia Vicinelli, Non sempre ricordano. Poesia prosa performance, Firenze, Le Lettere, 2009. Alla realizzazione di Cenerentola collaborarono le compagne detenute che realizzarono scenografie e costumi di carattere simbolico e coreografie intese come «paradigma della libertà attraverso l’amore»; le musiche, forse non più recuperabili, furono curate da Padre Umberto; alla regia si dedicò l’autrice stessa. La pièce ha finalità educative ma non moraleggianti: porta in scena la crescita di una ragazza degli anni ’70 non ancora emancipata, Cenerentola, che prende coscienza di sé e delle sue libertà personali, in un viaggio scandito in sette tappe, grazie all’esempio di una ragazza libera e priva di falsi timori, una viaggiatrice «straniera» solitaria che porta il nome di una costellazione, Cassiopea. La comunicazione intende presentare al Convegno la Cenerentola di Patrizia Vicinelli sia nei suoi significati peculiari – contrasto tra «mondo ideale» e «mondo reale», repressione dei desideri imposti da famiglia e condizionamenti sociali, riflessione sul binomio libertà/felicità –, sia nel più vasto quadro dell’intera produzione della poetessa, figura indipendente e anomala che, giovanissima, partecipò ad uno degli ultimi incontri della Neoavanguardia suscitando grande entusiasmo per i versi e per le doti vocali, e tuttavia mantenne poi un profilo assolutamente originale, non riducibile a filoni o correnti.
5) Marianne BERISSI, IUFM de Paris-Université de La Sorbonne
Sandra, Cendrier et Ma Chérie ou comment le mythe de Cendrillon a survécu à la parodie
Parmi les nombreuses réécritures de Cendrillon en France figurent nombre de parodies, ce qui semblerait confirmer la thèse couramment répandue selon laquelle c’est quand tous les possibles interprétatifs d’un texte ont été épuisés que subsiste le recours à la parodie. On voit ainsi apparaître dans les publications pour jeunes lecteurs des textes narrant les déboires de Cendrillon, son mariage mouvementé, des histoires de vengeance, ainsi que des avatars ironiques du personnage, mettant en cause les fondements du mythe. Cette production laisserait supposer que l’archétype de la jeune orpheline pure malmenée dans sa famille adoptive et qui devient l’élue d’un prince ne peut plus constituer un ressort fictionnel suffisamment puissant pour les générations d’aujourd’hui. Or, deux adaptations théâtrales contemporaines à destination d’un jeune public viennent infirmer ce jugement. Nous voudrions examiner en quoi les réécritures pour la scène de Joël Pommerat dans la pièce éponyme et de Bruno Castan dans La fille aux oiseaux seraient de nature à revivifier le mythe en proposant une lecture contemporaine de la version du texte des frères Grimm.
6) Katarzyna BIERNACKA-LICZNAR, Bogumiła STANIÓW, University of Wrocław, Poland
What language do you speak, Cinderella?
In the first part of the article we present the history of the launch of a number of Polish translations of Cinderella, trying to analise the fairytale by taking into account its two versions – by the Brothers Grimm and by Perrault – as well as looking at the publishers’ paratexts (introduction, drawings, covers), with special regard to the paratexts dating from the 50s and 60s of the 20th century published in Poland. “Text perypheries” constituted one of the tools of propaganda and censorship very often used in the publishing of works of classical literature. Here, we will try to find out whether such a process included classic works of children’s literature as well, by studying the Cinderella story in depth.
In the second part of the article a stylometric analisis of the Cinderella fairytale will be carried out. Computer stylometry is a modern method of analysis of the countable elements of literary style in order to state authorship, discover plagiarism and also study differences in style amongst various authors, individual works or texts from various literary times. Nowadays, the most frequently studied elements of literary style are the length of words, sentences, paragraphs and the richness of vocabulary.
Working on a few chosen versions of Cinderella, the 30 most often used words will be compared, studying the style used by various authors, as well as the similarities and differences between studied versions. The paper will attempt to answer the question of what language is spoken by Cinderella and other characters of the fairytale, and to find out whether the number of characters in the story changed over time, studying the idiolects of characters in order to determine wheteher they are based on their social class (stepmother, stepsisters, Prince Charming ), sex and age. Analising the differences between various translations, the paper will try to answer the question of whether the differences come from the authors’ individual interpretations of the original, as well as whether similarities can be found amongst various Polish translations over the decades.
7) Ana BOTELLA, Rafael FERNÁNDEZ, Xavier MÍNGUEZ, University of València, Spain
Adult/child languages in Rossini’s La Cenerentola and Disney’s Cinderella
Among the many adaptations of the traditional tale Cinderella, two of them have created a musical imagery of this classic: Rossini’s La cenerentola and Disney’s Cinderella. Both share the main plot and the use of music as a fundamental resource of expressivity although there are also many other choices that the works do not share. On the one hand, the source, that is, the version of the tale they used, was different. Rossini intended to address his work to an adult public and suffered the constraints of the difficulty of “special effects”. However Disney looked for a double audience (child/adult), as usually happens in children’s literature. Furthermore, animation makes it possible to create visual effects that “real” theater cannot. On the other hand, the musical solution was also conceived with these audiences in mind. Rossini was, in a sense, innovative with regard to his time and had to fight against a public that was often disappointed with the music he created. Disney, however, was very conservative also in the use of an opera-style music, while everywhere in Western countries jazz and other popular music forms were gaining momentum.
In our paper we will try to analyse both works from two points of view. Firstly, from a literary point of view, since we believe that the plot of both works corresponds to different audiences, which may help to configure different expressive resources. Secondly, from a musical point of view: the use of music in both productions may follow a pattern which may speak about the audiences and the different resources the authors relate with these specific audiences.
8) Alice BRIÈRE-HAQUET, University Paris IV Sorbonne, France-manca versione inglese
Re-immaginare la tradizione: il caso di Cenerentola nella vie di Londra
C’era una volta… due volte, cento volte, una fanciulla che voleva andare a ballare. Che vada al ballo o in una discoteca, quasi non importa: Ute Heidmann ha recentemente dimostrato come la fiaba si nutra delle sue riscritture, e sviluppato il concetto di «généricité», più dinamico rispetto a quello usuale di genere. Ogni singolo testo è così il risultato di un’iterazione socio-discorsiva, e entra in risonanza con le versioni anteriori e il suo contesto culturale. Questo dialogismo intertestuale è messo in rappresentazione nella Cendrillon di Roberto Innocenti del 1983. Il progetto editoriale è inizialmente quello di Etienne Delessert, autore-illustratore pioniere e direttore della collezione. In controcorrente rispetto alle riscritture per bambini semplificatrici, vuole confrontare una versione di patrimonio comune con la visione di un artista contemporaneo. L’opera scelta è la Cendrillon ou la Petite Pantoufle de verre di Charles Perrault del 1697, e l’illustratore Roberto Innocenti, gallerista, grafico, e animatore. Comincia allora per lui una nuova carriera che lo porterà fino al prestigioso premio Andersen nel 2008. Innocenti reinterpreta la fiaba rifiutando i referenti spazio-temporali attesi: Cenerentola si ritrova nella Londra degli anni ruggenti. Il lettore non riconosce l’ambiente delle fiabe classiche, ma non riconosce neanche il suo proprio mondo. Si trova dunque costretto a lanciarsi in un lavoro di comparatistica tra l’opera di Perrault, le immagini di Innocenti e il suo ricordo della storia. Grazie al doppio anacronismo si rivela il palinsesto. Come partecipano queste scelte editoriali e illustrative nella riconfigurazione generica della fiaba? In che misura Cenerentola esce re-immaginata da questo balletto di segni? Questo è ciò che ci chiederemo, iniziando con l’analisi del caleidoscopio dei referenti, per interessarci poi ai legami meta-discorsivi che vi si tessono. Questa riflessione ci inviterà a leggere la città di Cenerentola come spazio eterotopico.
9) Rossana DEDOLA, International School of Analytical Psychology, Zurich, Switzerland-manca versione inglese
Quando la carrozza di Cenerentola era ancora un cetriolo e non una zucca: la traduzione di Cenerentola di Carlo Lorenzini, detto Collodi.
Sei anni prima della nascita di Pinocchio, Carlo Collodi si cimentò nella traduzione delle fiabe di Charles Perrault, di Madame Le Prince de Beaumont e di Madame d’Alnoy, che uscì con il titolo I racconti delle fate presso l’editore Paggi a Firenze nel 1875, accompagnati dalle illustrazioni di Enrico Mazzanti.
Nel trasporre in italiano il testo di Cenerentola di Perrault, Collodi operò alcuni cambiamenti rispetto al testo francese, il Cabinet des fées uscito a Ginervra tra il 1785-89, e introdusse delle varianti. I cambiamenti introdotti dallo scrittore non vanno a mio parere nella direzione di un restringimento dell’ampio orizzonte della corte del Re Sole di Perrault entro i ristretti confini del Granducato di Toscana, come tradizionalmente ha interpretato la critica. Proprio la traduzione collodiana di Cenerentola rafforza invece l’idea di un Collodi già capace di spaziare in una dimensione non più regionale, ma nazionale e aperta a un respiro europeo.
Secondo Elena Giolitti, cui dobbiamo la bella traduzione italiana uscita nel 1957 presso la casa editrice Einaudi delle Fiabe francesi della corte del Re Sole, lo scrittore arricchirebbe il testo francese con un “gustoso umorismo”. La mediazione è da rintracciarsi nella Cenerentola di Gioacomo Rossini, della cui musica Collodi era un esperto conoscitore. Non si tratta tuttavia solo di “umorismo”, ma di una capacità narrativa straordinaria che rende evidenti anche i limiti della precedente traduzione italiana di Perrault di Cesare Donati e uscita presso l’editore Jouhaud nel 1867.
Il raffronto tra il testo di Perrault, la traduzione collodiana, quella di Cesare Donati e la versione più moderna di Elena Giolitti, mostra la straordinaria capacità di Collodi non solo di tradurre, ma di ricreare il testo di Cenerentola aderendo profondamente ai sentimenti messi in gioco dalla fiaba.
10) Cyrille FRANÇOIS, University of Lausanne, Switzerland
Cendrillon and Aschenputtel: same story, different voices
Perrault’s “Cendrillon, ou la petite pantoufle de verre” and the Brothers Grimm’s “Aschenputtel” may tell similar stories, but a range of specialists—folklorists, psychoanalysts and literary scholars, among others—have identified differences between them that reveal their individual particularities. But just as the different motifs or values induce readers to see them as different texts, this presentation suggests that the way in which Perrault and the Grimms tell their respective tales distinguishes them clearly. Indeed, Cendrillon and Aschenputtel are literary texts which confront the reader with two very different narrative voices. Through a close reading of the two texts (and with a special attention paid to the manner in which Aschenputtel was transformed from the 1812 to the 1857 edition), this study will discuss their differences in terms of narration. The rhythm of the tales will be analysed, and punctuation, sentence-length and syntactical construction will be taken into consideration (parataxis v. hypotaxis). The analysis will then turn to the way events are presented, whether by an intrusive narrator, or through a narrative voice hiding behind a chronological rendering. An analysis of reported speech will also consider the way the narrator gives voice to his characters. Placed into a discursive framework, this close reading comparative analysis aims to link Perrault and the Brothers Grimms’ distinctive narrative voices to their different conceptions of the fairy-tale genre.
11) Lien FRET, University of Antwerp, Belgium
“The child’s songs become the man’s deeds.” (J.P. Heije): Implicit Ideological Responses to the Poverty Problem in Late 19th– and Early 20th-century Dutch Translations of ‘Cinderella’
Whereas several late 19th– and early 20th-century authors of Dutch children’s literature explicitly defended the idea of ideological seeds planted during childhood bearing fruit during adulthood (in a.o. prefaces and essays), their children’s books often implicitly reflected this belief, namely in the shape of, for the most part, deeply embedded ideologies that lay beyond the (implied) child reader’s grasp. This paper examines four Dutch ‘Cinderella’-translations – two from the Netherlands, and two from Flanders – the implicit ideology governing the translation strategies of which seemed meant to influence the implied reader’s future ‘deeds’. Drawing on Emer O’Sullivan’s model of narrative communication, a comparative analysis of source and target texts reveals the implied translators’ views on the Low Countries’ grinding poverty problem around the turn of the century. These join in with ideas expressed in a 1895 report on the societal status quo in the Netherlands, which called the period an era of fear of the misunderstanding and bitterness between social classes and of hope that those endowed with both earthly belongings and civilisation would become aware of their higher calling towards the less fortunate (H.G. Borgesius e.a. (ed.): 348).
This paper explores how Cinderella’s behaviour in the Dutch translations and its differences with or similarities to Charles Perrault’s ‘Cendrillon’ (1697) and/or the Grimms’ ‘Aschenputtel’ (1812) – such as Asschepoester’s humble acceptance of her dire fate, her unexpected actions that subvert the middle-class ideals that she is meant to conform to or her dedication to the less fortunate – reveals the implied translators’ views on social conformity and the predominantly bourgeois efforts to maintain a class society on the one hand and mercy and/or patronage to the poor as key to solving the poverty issue on the other.
12) Marinella GALATERIA, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
La Cenerentola – “musical” di Massimo Bontempelli
Cenerentola, scritta, insieme alle musiche di scena, da Bontempelli per il Maggio Musicale Fiorentino, fu rappresentata in prima assoluta il 6 giugno 1942 al Teatro della Pergola, protagonista Laura Adani, con la regia di Corrado Pavolini. Nella rivisitazione della fiaba, Cenerentola, riplasmata come creatura femminile bontempelliana candida, portata naturalmente a credere al mistero dell’universo, vive tranquilla, senza lamentarsi tanto della matrigna e delle sorellastre, perché è capace di sognare e di sentire le misteriose voci del cosmo. Tanto che alla fine al Principe viene destinata una fidanzata più regale, Antonia, e lei, la protagonista della fiaba, invece del principe azzurro, sposa Icaro, il suonatore di viola, non tanto per una ragione sociale, come è stato scritto da molti, ma perché Icaro “è molto più importante del Principe”. Infatti non solo è l’unico capace di riconoscerla e di amarla anche nel suo vero aspetto, quello di tutti i giorni, ma è in sintonia profonda con lei, avendo la sua stessa capacità di riuscire a sentire il canto della terra e il respiro del cielo. Il motivo fondamentale dell’armonia del cosmo, colto nell’incanto misterioso della volta stellata, caro al realismo magico di Bontempelli, riplasma dunque l’eroina e il clima tutto della fiaba di Perrault. Partendo da un’illustrazione della scena del ballo del Dorè, Bontempelli aveva portato avanti fin dal primissimo stadio della creazione (1938) l’idea di Cenerentola non solo come testo teatrale, ma come un insieme inscindibile di scene, parole e musica, ovvero come spettacolo. E spettacolo viene definita Cenerentola nel sottotitolo dell’edizione in volume (Roma, Edizioni della Cometa, 1942). Uno spettacolo in cui la contaminazione tra le varie arti, teatro, balletto, musica, rivista, tende a generare qualcosa di nuovo, che può solo paragonarsi al musical, creando un’aspirazione al meraviglioso nel ballo festoso, pieno di luci e di colori, nella quadriglia del terzo quadro, nella diversa ma felice conclusione.
13) Fawzia GILANI-WILLIAMS, University of Worcester, United Arab Emirates
Islamic Values and the Adaptation of Cinderella
Popular culture has become a key site for struggles over recognition and meaning, in which cultural artefacts are not simply recycled but reinvented and reconsumed in an increasingly globalised system, whereby ‘image’ is of dominant concern (Bourdieu, P. & Nice, R. 1987). Canada has invested heavily in developing Canadian children’s literature so that its citizens have a specific Canadian identity. “How do Canadian children come to understand and appreciate the uniqueness of Canada and of their Canadian-ness in the books they read? Young people must see themselves reflected in what they read and view so as to develop a sense of identity.” (Black & Jobe 2005) I ask a similar question regarding Muslim children and respond to it through Cinderella. My 2010 adaptation of Cinderella reaches into the international canon of fairy tales and appropriates a text that it remakes to communicate and reflect Islamic values. This version of Cinderella incorporates verses from the Qur’an – the recited testament that Muslims regard as the last in a series of divine communications. The adaptation carries an array of social meanings quite different from the original tale, which serves to promote an international Islamic identity that gives the Muslim child visibility. To flesh out these meanings, this session will initially discuss the influences leading to how the Islamic tale evolved from Muslimella to Cinderella.In addition we will see what elements were inserted and eliminated in the Islamic version through familiarization with the text.
14) Kirsten GOOSSENS, University Paul-Valéry Montpellier III, France
Cendrillon et Finette Cendron : interactions et interconnexions textuelles
Even while using the same main theme, we will see that the fairy tale Cendrillon by Charles Perrault and Finette Cendron by Marie-Catherine d’Aulnoy don’t tell exactly the same story. We have noticed that Madame d’Aulnoy feminised the male characters and, at the same time, she gave the female characters qualities mainly reserved for the male sex during the seventeenth century. However, Charles Perrault seemed to attach a great importance to the respect of the social realities and the social ideals present at the seventeenth century.
The question that we will try to answer is to know how and why Madame d’Aulnoy has decided to modify the characters of a fairy tale that resembles in many ways the one published by Charles Perrault, one year before. Can we speak here about a feminist attempt by Madame d’Aulnoy trying to make a fool of men, when showing strong and intelligent women who don’t need the male sex to succeed? Did she have the ambition to write a ‘feminine’ version of the fairy tale by Charles Perrault? Did she just want to offend the seventeenth century readers by showing them another choice of society?
Our aim is not to deal with the possible influence that the fairy tale of Charles Perrault could have had on the version written by Madame d’Aulnoy, but to try to explain why she decided to publish, just one year later, a fairy tale that reminds us of Cendrillon, but with modified characters. In order to give answers to our questions, we will try to analyse carefully the characters of the two fairy tales, also, we will study the moral conveyed by Charles Perrault and Madame d’Aulnoy at the end of their stories.
15) Libuše HECZKOVA, Charles University of Praga, Czech Republic
The fairy tale About Cinderella is as popular in the Czech context as the story is anywhere else; the most popular Czech movie Three Nuts for Cinderella (1973) is a case in point. And the same fame has consecrated the iconic Czech female writer of the first half of the 19th century, Bozena Nemcova. She is considered to be the founder of the Czech novel tradition as well as a proto-feminist and also a national martyr. According to the spirit of the period’s romantic strategy to strengthen the national and Slavic identity, the author started as a folklore collector and Czech and later also Slovak fairy tale writer. Nevertheless, her selection of the fairy tales and her work on them totally stepped out of the frames of folklore narratives shared in the whole of Europe. Her fairy tales were rather an excuse to create specific pieces of art that are based on the strong Austro-German Biedermaier, typical of the Habsburg monarchy of the first half of the 19th century. But these fairy tales also reflect her feminine experience, national requests for strengthening the revolutionary Czech environment, and also her turn to the ideas of utopist socialism. Nemcova’s fairy tale About Cinderella (1845) belongs to the most outstanding ones. It is part of a cycle that was not very well received by the readers of that period, but the critics and national intellectuals applauded it. This cycle confirmed the hope that even the small circle of the Czech culture could produce a female writer of the George Sand – type. Cinderella is adapted and nationally domesticated: her original story is combined in totally different motives and regional fairy tale morphological settings. Nemcova brings different layers of various mythological dissociations that enable to look for a new union that transgresses punishment (e. g. she eliminates the punishment for the step-mother and step-sisters from the Grimms’ versions and also from Nemcova’s peer Karel J. Erben’s version). This new unification contains forgiveness but not the return to the original state that is socially incorrect. Cinderella becomes an ideological portrait of a new, good empress. Love becomes the essential ideological aspect of the newly created world. Cinderella is therefore a similar expression of utopian equality and brotherhood (sisterhood) and common bliss as in Nemcova’s later original texts.
16) Monia Mounira HEJAIEJ, University of Sultan Qaboos, Oman
Cinderella in Middle Eastern Women’s Imagination
Much has been written on the subject of Cinderella, perhaps because her character is so elastic that it has been reinvented by many different cultures and become such a big part of world culture. What becomes of Cinderella in Middle Eastern Women’s Imagination?
Cinderella’s elasticity has led to more contemporary reinventions in the Middle East, naturally with native changes, that counteract the image of Cinderella as a beautiful, passive, docile young woman that is often perpetrated in western popular culture and the classic versions of the fairytale that has been handed down throughout the ages. It is currently found in folk repertoires in North Africa and the Middle East is mostly narrated by women who use this tale to exaggerate and concretize the cultural forces that oppress them and to demonstrate practical strategies to achieve personal fulfillment.
In this paper I would like to explore the West /East connection of the tales, and consider three Middle Eastern versions of Cinderella in their textual nature, as products related to a given cultural, historical and literary context. Three versions of Cinderella from Tunisia, Palestine and Oman which recall Boccaccio and Perrault will provide the basis of my discussion.
17) Martine HENNARD Dutheil de la Rochère, University of Lousanne, Switzerland
Fairy tale refashioning or translation and/as rewriting: when Angela Carter’s Cinderella dresses as Ashputtle
My paper explores the translation-rewriting dynamic in Angela Carter’s work, based on her versions of Cinderella and Ashputtle. When Carter retranslated Perrault’s contes for children in The Fairy Tales of Charles Perrault (1977), she discovered a pre-romantic, French tradition compatible with her pedagogical aim, feminist agenda and materialist standpoint, and went on to rewrite the familiar stories for adults in The Bloody Chamber (1979). I propose a contrapuntal reading of Carter’s Perrault-based “Cinderella: or, The Little Glass Slipper” and her Grimm-based “Ashputtle or The Mother’s Ghost”, which harks back to “Aschenputtel” and ancient versions of the tale. Carter’s double response to Perrault’s literary tale (which she contributed to reintroduce in England) and Grimm’s ’folk tale’ shows that the story has lent itself to multiple refashionings, like the heroine herself, which ties in with Carter’s understanding of intellectual development as inseparable from the ‘new reading of old texts’.
18) Kathryn HOFFMAN, University of Hawaii-Manoa, United States
Perrault’s Cendrillon Among the Glass Tales: Crystal Fantasies and Glassworks in Seventeenth-Century France and Italy
This paper will set the glass slippers in Perrault’s “Cendrillon” within two contexts: a) fairy tales from France and Italy with enchanted crystal (glass) objects and fairy palaces; b) the historical context of luxury glass production and consumption in the seventeenth century, with emphasis on the work of Bernard Perrot.
Perrault’s “Cendrillon” is one of a number of seventeenth-century tales involving girls and glass. In Basile’s “Young Slave” a girl is preserved in seven glass caskets that grow magically with her. In “Verdeprato” (“Green Meadow”) a prince travels to his lover through a crystal tunnel. In France, women authors developed elaborate crystal fairy palaces. The history of the fairies writes itself on crystal walls in D’Aulnoy’s “La chatte blanche” and in “La Grenouille bienfaisant” an enchanted crystal palace floats on a lake of mercury.
The appearance of glass in fairy tales is contemporaneous with new vogues in glass use. In Italy “incorruptible” saints were being translated into elaborate new crystal caskets. In France Bernard Perrot (Bernardo Perotto) produced elaborate works in the new royal glassworks, including a glass portrait of the king. Court readers consumed precious glass objects that vied with Italian productions and chatted about tales of espionage and poisoning surrounding the recently completed hall of mirrors in Versailles. In fairy tales, crystal was often associated with fairy power, enchantment, and the risk of death.
19) Howard HOLLANDS, Victoria DE RIJKE, Middlesex University of London, United Kingdom
“Domestic Drudgery : a performative analysis of Cinderellas, across visual & moving media.”
In Art as Technique (1917) the Russian formalist Victor Shklovsky explored ‘laying bare the device’, where artists or writers reveal something of the creative process behind the ‘beautiful lies’ of finished work. We propose a visual, performative presentation that ‘lays bare’ some of the repetitious devices at work in versions of Cinderella depicting domestic drudgery. Using film and picturebook extracts from Disney and others, we intend to explore the cultural creativity inherent in acts of repetition and drudgery that are part of the shared processes of picturebook, graphic work comic-strip, animation, film and performance; an analysis of repeated Cinderella metamorphoses in visual form. Over-wrought versus erased surfaces: We will argue that Cinderella as a text epitomises that ‘over-wrought surface’ – of Disney animation, over-theorised film studies, the coloured-in drawing or the child as over-worked figure in film and literature. The performance will take the act of rubbing out and erasing as a generative creative process; a process of thinking, perhaps. Through live performance, we will analyse what scrubbing the floor might signify, and how images of cleaning reveal rich metaphors of both repetition-compulsion and – more surprisingly – creative transformation in Cinderella variants across literature and visual media.
20) Agata HOŁOBUT, Jagellonian University of Cracow, Poland
Cinderella in the Polish Poster
Expressive, provocative, allusive, alluring, informative, poetic and emphemeral, theatre posters are endowed with a variety of communicative functions. They announce the upcoming performances, condense their narrative and ideological content, reveal the artistic intentions of the producers and reflect the aesthetic pursuits of the designers. As such, they constitute invaluable research material for intersemiotic and cross-cultural analysis.
In my paper, I wish to present a diachronic overview of selected theatre, ballet and opera posters for Cinderella, staged in twentieth and twenty-first century Poland. Working on the assumption that these art forms rely on visual metaphor and metonymy to achieve maximal effect by minimal graphic means, I investigate the metaphors and metonymies used to convey the essence of Cinderella-ness, as filtered through Polish culture and the artists’ individual attitudes.
How have the metonymic representations of the fairy tale evolved from glass slippers to feather dusters and stilettos? What metaphors of beauty, injustice and dream come true are evoked to advertise the performances? Hopefully, this diachronic overview will not only shed new light on the changing conventions of opera staging and poster design, but also reveal the transformation of aesthetic and ideological attitudes towards romance, gender roles, beauty rewarded and meekness triumphant, observable in Poland.
21) Dianne JOHNSON, University of South Carolina, United States
Gospel Cinderella: The African Americaness and Universality of Joyce Carol Thomas’s When the Nightingale Sings
Joyce Carol Thomas is a brilliant novelist and poet whose work has never been accorded the attention it deserves. Her work examines and celebrates the richness of American cultures. Her novel When the Nightingale Sings, a retelling of the Cinderella story, is an especially amazing book that reimagines the story through the lens of African American culture.
The most important thing about Thomas’s version of the story is that it is about beauty of the spirit instead of physical beauty. When the Nightingale Sings is important, too, because of the many ways in which it celebrates African American culture in general and African American music in particular. Instead of the characters looking forward to a grand ball, they look forward to a gospel sing-out. Thomas gracefully works lyrics into the larger text. The religious themes are not overbearing; they appropriately pay homage to the place of music in sustaining black communities in America throughout a long, troubled, complicated history. Anthony, a minister of music at Rose of Sharon Baptist Church, is the perfect keeper of this legacy as he goes about finding the perfect new member for the Voices of Paradise Choir.
Joyce Carol Thomas’s book is poetic, multi-layered, and engrossing. It is not without the evil stepmother and stepsisters and other markers of the core story. It is both realistic and magical. It is an African American tale that deserves to be celebrated and shared. This is what I propose to do at the “Cinderella as a Text of Culture” international conference.
22) Marianthi KAPLANOGLOU, University of Athens, Greece
Narrators and audiences of Cinderella in the islands of the Aegean
Cinderella is one of the most pervasive, varied and influential tales in Modern Greek folk culture, with an enduring and strong impact on the collective memory. The intracultural study of Cinderella’s narrative traditions shows a process of constant adaptation of an established pattern to local contexts (in terms of plot development, form, function, performance situation, diffusion and meaning). When village women tell this internationally known tale, their version is told from their point of view. Thus, according to the local communities of transmission, the same story can have multiple contexts and a variety of uses and meanings. This paper discusses certain versions of Cinderella, told within rural communities, by groups of young and older women who executed a female collective work, like spinning or knitting during the night hours. This process was called, in greek, nichteri. The paper analyzes the circumstances of narration in these groups of transmission, the improvisation on the treatment of known themes and the relation of the oral with the literary tradition of the tale. The recorded versions were either differentiated from the international narrative pattern, absorbing, on an archaic basis, motifs reflecting everyday practices of these women, or followed more or less the famous printed versions of West Europe.
The main objective of this paper is therefore to study the adaptations of an old plot to these particular audiences, to their mores, aspirations and social life. The paper is based on micro-data recently collected during field research in the Aegean islands, in comparison with the findings of the Catalogue of the Greek Folktale as well as the classical versions of Cinderella by Perrault and the Brothers Grimm.
23) Sun-Nyeo KIM, University of Strasbourg, France
Alla ricerca dell’immagine vera di Kong-ji, Cenerentola coreana
In Corea, esistono più versioni della favola di Cenerentola: Kong-ji e Pat-ji oppure Kong-jungi e Patjungi. Il titolo mette avanti due nomi: quello della protagonista e quello della sorellastra. Il racconto è simile a quello cinese, Yeh-hsien1, o ancora a quello vietnamita. Nel 1919 viene scoperta una versione stampata, di cui non si conosce né l’autore né l’anno di prima pubblicazione. Negli anni ’20 e ’30, alcune versioni orali vengono raccolte in diverse regioni della Corea. Come nella favola di Cenerentola, la protagonista si sposa con un notabile grazie alla scarpa perduta. Il racconto inizia con una competizione sul lavoro tra le due sorelle. La favola non finisce con il matrimonio della protagonista, le prove di Kong-ji continuano per arrivare a una metamorfosi spirituale che la renda più forte e le consenta di ritrovare il marito. Quest’episodio viene spesso soppresso, per la lunghezza e la crudeltà; però si sopprime nello stesso tempo la reincarnazione della protagonista, uccisa dalla sorellastra, come nella teoria della trasmigrazione del Buddismo. Esiste pure in Corea una forte influenza della versione di Charles Perrault, poi di Walt Disney: ci si ritrova la nozione cristiana di perdono. La maggior parte degli adattamenti per i ragazzi sono influenzati dalla versione scritta. Però, dagli anni ’80, alcuni editori pubblicano una o l’altra delle versioni orali esistenti, per ritrovare i particolari della cultura coreana. D’altra parte, Young-kyung Lee, autrice ed illustratrice, riscrive e illustra una delle versioni cinesi di Cenerentola, che rassomiglia a Kong-ji e Pat-ji. Ne pubblica poi una versione in cui trasferisce la storia negli anni ’50, subito dopo la guerra di Corea, così come Roberto Innocenti ambienta la sua Cenerentola nella Londra degli anni ’20. Per questo convegno, vorrei mostrare l’universalità e la peculiarità della favola di Kong-ji e Pat-ji rispetto a quella di Cenerentola, per poi studiare l’iconografia di Kong-ji, Cenerentola coreana.
24 Tatiana KORNEEVA, F. Schlegel Graduierten Schule für literaturwissenschaftliche Studien, Berlin, Germany
Cinderella’s rival sisters in male and female-penned fairy tales
Cinderella’s relationships with her malicious stepsisters, which dictate the dramatic structure of this immensely successful and beloved fairy tale, represent an aspect that has so far not received its due scholarly recognition. Whereas the motif of rival brothers, a recurrent paradigm of political conflicts and a perfect narrative embodiment of blood crimes and power struggles, has fascinated European literature and arts since classical antiquity, the tensions between sisters have so far failed to arouse scholarly interest. In all cultures, fairy tales are a major gateway to issues of identity and to psychological and social phenomena; their presentation of such states of tension is more succinct yet often more accurate than that occurring in most other literary genres. The numerous variants of the “Cinderella” tale present this tension between women in the most archetypical form. In order to determine the specific nature and function of the rival sisters motif, as well as to explore the dynamics of its transformation, I intend to focus on the three male-authored versions of the tale: the first European “Cinderella” by Basile, as well as the now canonical versions by Perrault and the Brothers Grimm. Unlike Perrault’s gentle Cendrillon, or the Grimms’ good and pious Aschenputtel, Basile’s Zezolla is an ambiguous and multifaceted character, whose main virtue seems to consist in her ability to manipulate people and situations to her advantage. It is thus interesting to investigate the internal structure of the relational dynamics that characterize the conflict between sisters, and to address the question as to why the same-sex sibling interactions are perceived as intrinsically different from opposite-sex ones, as well as less socially acceptable, in these and other Cinderella-type tales. A systematic exploration of the theme of female sibling rivalry can provide a new and deeper understanding of dominant ideologies of gender and sexuality, as well as evaluate the function and significance of the rival sisters’ motif as a key point in the shaping of Europe’s fictional heritage.
25 Gillian LATHEY, Roehampton University of London, United Kingdom
The translator as agent of change: Robert Samber, translator of pornography, wedding odes and the first English version of Perrault’s Cinderella (1729)
Biographical insights into the work of authors and translators have long been out of fashion. Yet, as critical work on the history of translation (Pym, 1998) has demonstrated, the role of translators and their publishers in determining the course of intercultural exchange should not be underestimated. This is particularly so in an era when translation was not a recognised profession and translators worked with publishers on an ad hoc basis. Early translators of children’s books into English were a motley crew, with translation as a sideline to work as journalist, cleric, author or even stable boy and shoemaker (Lathey, 2010). Robert Samber, many of whose papers survive in the Bodleian Library at Oxford University, was just such a jobbing (or, to use the common and derogatory term, ‘hack’) translator of fables, pornographic texts, occasional verse and medical treatises who nevertheless secured a significant place in the history of English-language children’s literature by translating Perrault’s Contes de ma mère l’oye into English in 1729. In doing so, Samber was instrumental in a shift in the audience for the tales from the adult towards the child, as his prefatory remarks and the translations of the tales themselves make clear. This paper will introduce the legacy of Samber with particular reference to “Cinderilla; or, the little glass slipper”, reaching a conclusion that translators are far more than faceless conduits: they may indeed act as agents of change.
26 Matteo LUCCI, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
A Japanese Cinderella. From fairy tale to manga
Even nowadays, the tale of Cinderella continues to inspire the creativity of Japanese writers and artists, and most importantly it still exerts its fascination on the public,
especially on women. Through numerous adaptations in novels, manga and anime (Japanese words for comics and animation), the story of the young beautiful girl, who is humiliated by her stepmother only to finally redeem herself and be rewarded with Prince Charming’s love, has crossed the boundaries of the fairy tale and become part of pop culture. What are, then, the “Japanese” characteristics of such a variety of new readings? In this presentation, I aim to elaborate a general definition of the main ways in which the Cinderella fairy tale has been received and read in the Japanese cultural context. In doing so, I look at its most recent and significant adaptations and consider the different genres – novel, manga and anime – of these works, as well as the different types of public they address. The character of Cinderella seems to be a sort of ideal model for some Japanese women – as tale-inspired handbooks to find Prince Charming seem to suggest. At the same time, however, Cinderella also reflects all the features of the character, so often found in Japanese tales, who finds happiness after much suffering. I argue that it is most probably this latter element, in addition to the numerous narrative possibilities the story of Cinderella offers, that arouses sympathy in the Japanese public. Special attention will be devoted to manga, as the genre of some of the most popular as well as original new readings of the Cinderella fairy tale, such as comic parodies and gender remakes.
27 MacLeod Mark, University Charles Sturt, Australia
The male Cinderella in global fiction for young adults
Among the ‘wimpy boys’ who attempt to reposition male characters as the focalisers of post-feminist children’s literature in English, the most problematic are the ‘male Cinderellas’ of GLBTQ fiction for young adults. The object of the gay male Cinderella’s affection is invariably good at sport, conventionally handsome and in some position of authority, as a team captain or a ‘jock’, who will represent the school in competition. He is the masculine paradigm that the male Cinderella cannot be, but he is the catalyst for the male Cinderella’s tentative steps towards claiming his own subjectivity – or ‘coming out’. The male Cinderella’s dark secret is his sexuality, which is exposed by someone else, or occasionally by the boy himself if circumstances make it unavoidable.
Young adult fiction appears to be stuck with the idea that sexuality is defined by what the character is, rather than what he or she does. Why? The paper argues that this is due to the brutal taxonomy of the schoolyard and – despite all the emphasis on achieving a ‘personal best’ – to the predominance of competitive sport, which labels participants as winners and losers, strong and weak, male and female. Parsons (2004) argues that the Perrault tradition deprives women of agency; they are to wait passively until men empower them and empowerment can only be achieved through suffering. Although ostensibly challenging patriarchal values by attempting to redefine masculinity, the young adult coming out story positions its focal character in a stereotyped feminine role and ironically, therefore, confirms him as Cinderella nevertheless. The potential for change in such a conclusion is considered by comparing recent novels for young adults by Hartinger, Levithan and Sanchez.
28 Elena MASSI, University of Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy
Cinderella, Cenerentola or Sendraroeula?
The Italian domestication of Cinderella has involved a great many authors and performers. According to the categories coined by Heidemann and Adam we can recognize a genrecité auctoriale in Basile and Straparola and a genrecité lectoriale which alowed Cinderella to survive to the present day (Heidemann-Adam 2004, 2007). The first documents showing the genrecité lectoriale of Cinderella are represented by the research of the Italian folklorists of the end of the XIX century. The folklorists transcribed variants of Straparola and Basile’s stories in anthologies and journals which were read by other researchers, common people, writers. In their work Cinderella takes different names, has variegated families and wears multicoloured clothes. Every Italian region gave its contribution to shape a new genrecité auctoriale of the fairy tale according to local social and economic conditions. The reader can observe this genrecité auctoriale in works by Luigi Capuana, Italo Calvino, Beatrice Solinas Donghi, Emanuele Luzzati and Gianni Rodari. The Italian folklorists gave a huge contribution to the main Italian writers, illustrators, directors and stage designers who recreated the fairy tale anew. Among the studies of the Italian folklorists, it was the journal Archivio per lo studio delle tradizioni popolari that dedicated a special attention to Cinderella. In thirty years’ work, the directors Giuseppe Pitrè and Salvatore Salomone Marino edited three essays about Cinderella and collected thirteen versions of the tale. Vittorio Caravelli, Vittorio Imbriani, Caterina Pigorini Beri and Giuseppe Pitrè transcribed the Cinderellas told in Calabria, Campania, Emilia Romagna, Marche and Tuscany. In my paper I shall discuss the different versions of Cinderella collected in the Archivio dello studio delle tradizioni popolari by Giuseppe Pitrè in Tuscany (1882), by Caterina Pigorini Beri in Marche and Emilia Romagna (1882), and by Vittorio Imbriani in Campania (1884). I shall compare their works with the stories of Straparola and Basile mentioned earlier. Finally I shall comment on the different names of Cinderella, the actions of the characters as well as the representation of social models and the insertion of typical regional objects, colours and materials.
29 Rona MAY-RON, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
Rejecting the Glass Slipper: The Rejection of Femininity in Margaret Atwood’s The Edible Woman
Margaret Atwood’s deep involvement with the genre of fairy tales in her fictional writings has been extensively discussed and analyzed by both folklore and Atwood scholars. And yet, allusions to the Cinderella tale and its numerous variants, iconic symbols and inferred morals have not been explored in studies of Atwood’s work, especially not as a sustained theme throughout her writing corpus. In various interviews Atwood has made her personal predilection for active and resourceful fairy-tale heroines, as opposed to passive and helpless ones, very clear, thus placing herself on the side of feminist critics who, in the 1970s, commenced a critique regarding the patriarchal representation of women in classic fairy tales and in culture at large. Indeed, Atwood has expressed her dissatisfaction with the popularized versions of the tale of Cinderella in particular on several occasions. But despite this evident unease, the recurrence of the Cinderella tale as an intertext in Atwood’s novels attests to the inescapable hold it seems to have on her imagination. In her first published novel, The Edible Woman (1969), Atwood regularly alludes to the tale of Cinderella through the use of motifs, events, and symbols from the fairy tale, thus creating a text whose narrative frame and socio-psychological themes are analogous to those of the famous fairy tale. However, Atwood’s story constitutes a subversive rendering of the traditional, popularized tale. Whereas Bruno Bettelheim reads the recovered shoe scene as Cinderella’s symbolic acceptance of her femininity, a prerequisite for marrying the prince and living happily ever after, Atwood challenges this reading through choosing to dramatize her protagonist’s struggle between the obligation to consent to a socially-constructed femininity and an almost instinctive desire to reject it. In a novel deeply invested with the phallocentric social construction of femininity at the advent of second-wave feminism, Atwood functions as an iconoclast who symbolically smashes the glass slipper to smithereens through a protagonist who rebuffs this symbol and everything it psychologically and socially signifies.
30 Marian MCCURDY, University of Canterbury, New Zeland
Cinderella in Hollywood: making over the slut
In today’s mediatised culture, in cinema, but especially in the area of reality television, there is a saturation of makeover narratives – the dreary housewife is made over into a glamorous perky femme fatale with the help of plastic surgery and good fashion advice, or the depreciating state house is made over and renovated into a “hot property” etc. The 1990 film Pretty Woman starring Julia Roberts and Richard Gere, preceded this makeover fanaticism but is an early example of it. It has also been likened to the Cinderella and Pygmalion stories where this fantasy of transformation and makeover can also be found. In the Grimm and Perrault versions of Cendrillon/Aschenputtel the abused servant girl is saved by the prince. In Pretty Woman the working class prostitute is saved by the upper class executive. She goes from rags to riches, from bad girl to good girl, from slut to (presumably) married woman – in other words in today’s society the story is used as a Capitalist success story. While a metaphor for the American dream, as Jim Emerson notes, parallels are drawn between prostitution and Capitalism; says Edward (Gere) “You and I are such similar people. We both screw people for money.” So it looks as if the film starts out as a criticism of capitalist behaviour in men and women – Edward ultimately decides not to follow through with a contentious business transaction and Vivian similarly decides not to continue whoring herself and to pursue an education instead. Her reward is Edward charging in to rescue her in his white limousine. Love wins over money. But the film can also be seen as the apotheosis of Capitalism with marriage as its fundamental institution. In this way the film negates and disguises Capitalism’s reality – its fundamental structure which necessitates the “screwing” of people in order to create profit. It also celebrates the reality of the middle-class existence in which women find suitable husbands by selling themselves to the highest bidder. So in a way we could all see ourselves in the position of the ugly sisters in Cinderella, where we dream of being chosen by the rich prince to lift us out of our lowly dirty existence into the realm of Capitalist Millionaires – like in reality television when women are given another lesson in how to indulge this grandiose “fantasy of glory”.
31 Xenia MITROKHINA, Department of History of Literature and Journalism, International Law and Economics Institute, Moscow, Russia
The Soviet Cinderella as a positive scenario
First known from translations of Charles Perrault and Grimm’s Fairy Tales, the story of Cinderella has long been widely popular in Russia, with folk versions already circulating back in the19th century. It is interesting to look at the unexpectedly significant role that the story of Cinderella began to play in the first Soviet decades, right after the 1917 Revolution. Apparently, it was in tune with two key Soviet slogans: one attributed to Lenin, “Every kitchen maid can rule the country,” and one contained in The Internationale, “Who was naught will become everything.” Slightly tweaked for manipulation purposes, Cinderella was put at the foundation of the Soviet myth of social mobility. In a 1940 Soviet film, The Way of Light (working title, Cinderella), a poor country maid is unfairly laid off and finds a job at a weaving mill. Starting out as a weaver, she makes technological innovations, sets records of productivity, and rises to fame. A member of parliament, she travels to Moscow to make a public speech. Happy as a lark, wearing an elegant suit, she addresses the audience in a gorgeous royal-like hall, and soon becomes engaged to a promising young engineer: a Soviet prince. It is crucial that magic is expunged from Soviet Cinderella’s miraculous transformation, which happens entirely by virtue of her hard work and perseverance. There is no room for fairies in this story. This film was shot after the end of the Soviet campaign against fairy tales, which were believed to distract children from real life. Ideologists rewrote popular storylines in a way to replace magic explanations with practical ones. In the film’s finale, the heroine’s proud parents exclaim, “What miracles can people work!” thus celebrating the triumph of the materialist interpretation. The film ends with the heroine singing a song that would become a hit, “We face no obstacles on land or sea.” The plural “we” indicated a public message, which was well received. Identifying with the heroine, thousands of country girls rushed to the capital hoping to earn success with persistent hard work. They were not after Prince Charming: the Soviet Cinderella is sexless, a comrade not a lover. The metaphor of the Soviet Cinderella remained in circulation for decades. Subsequent screen and theatre versions of this story can be used to trace the evolution of public perceptions throughout the Soviet era.
32 Emiliya OHAR, Ukrainian Publishing & Printing Academy, Ukraine
Different ‘faces’ of Cinderella in modern Ukrainian media
Modern “Ukrainian Cinderella” (Popelyushka), or the contemporary Ukrainian version of the Cinderella fairy tale, appears to be a culturally polymorphous creation, both as a media product and as well as a publishing phenomenon, a mixed-cultural character of phenomena determined by several extra-textual factors. One of the most relevant traits of the tale consists in its being made available in a bilingual version. Almost all video products (both old soviet and modern Russian films, as well as American and European movies) are available to the Ukrainian audience in both Ucrainian and Russian translations. As far as the book market is concerned, many reprints of Ukrainian and Russian translations which were canonized – so to speak – in Soviet times now coexist with Disney’s co-prints. In the majority of cases they tend to replicate/duplicate the tale’s traditional plot (mostly Perrault’s). The contemporary attempts to offer a new and original version of the tale are mainly based on experimental and unusual illustration techniques. A few not widely known Ukrainian folk interpretations of the Cinderella plot have appeared in collections of folk fairy tales for children. In my contribution I intend to show the outcomes of such a linguistic and cultural ‘mix’. I will do so by discussing how the ‘literature—cinema’ paradigm has changed in the perception of contemporary young readers, for whom the film adaptation of the story is the one that now comes first.
33 Vinicio ONGINI, Ministry of Public Education, Italy
Il giro del mondo in 80 scarpe. Cenerentola e l’educazione interculturale
Le tante epoche, ambientazioni e appartenenze culturali della fiaba hanno richiesto una grande varietà di calzature. E un lavoro straordinario, di ciabattini coltissimi e di altri che battono la fiacca. La più famosa, la scarpetta di vetro, scelta da Perrault (e da Disney), è soltanto una delle tante scarpe consumate da Cenerentola in viaggio per il mondo. Ci sono le babbucce e le copine, gli zoccoli e gli stivaletti di pelliccia, le scarpe di sughero e le pianelle, le ‘ciavatte’ e le ciabattine d’oro, e i sandali con il muso di tigre… Le scarpe di Cenerentola, o meglio si potrebbe dire “Le scarpe e Cenerentola”. Perché le scarpe sono coprotagoniste: strumenti di navigazione nel mare delle differenze, favolosi Tom Tom, ‘mediatrici culturali’, oggetti rivelatori: del tempo, delle classi sociali, delle religioni, della moda, della tecnica, dell’identità. Un viaggio per il mondo, sulle tracce delle altre Cenerentole, in cerca delle scarpe ‘giuste’.
34 Sophie RAYNARD, The State University of New York at Stony Brook, United States
From Stage to Screen: The Operatic Legacy of Disney’s Cinderella
Walt Disney’s 1950 film adaptation of the classic French fairy tale Cendrillon was so successful and has since spread so widely that for the current generation it has become the canonical version of the Cinderella story. This talk will explore the role of 19th- and 20th-century operas on Disney’s modern film Cinderella and video production sequels (Cinderella II and III): Dreams Come True (2002) and A Twist in Time (2007).
The Cinderella story was repeatedly adapted for staged opera in the past century and a half before Disney’s work with the story. The first to do so was Nicolas Isouard (1810), and his opera was followed by those of Gioacchino Rossini (1817) and Jules Massenet (1899), in addition to which Sergei Prokofiev created a 1945 ballet. The operas’ libretti together with Ashton’s and Nureyev’s ballet choreographies provide a provocative insight into the creative process in the Disney studios: it is evident that elements from operas and ballet were modified and/or integrated into the Disney corporation’s cinematic versions of and sequels to Cinderella. This talk will discuss the elements that Disney borrowed from the operatic tradition and how these became ‘disneyfied’ in the metamorphosis process of the Cinderella story from stage to screen.
35 Ashley RIGGS, University of Geneva, Switzerland
Contemporary Cinderellas in Translation: A Triple Metamorphosis
The relationship between contemporary rewritings of “Cinderella” and metamorphosis is three-fold. Firstly, as in the classic precursors, tale plots often revolve around metamorphosis. Secondly, “rewriting” means the new texts have transformed the old. Finally, when rewritings are translated, a third type of metamorphosis may occur, given that the way a reader – and therefore a translator – approaches a text depends upon not only the text itself, but also his/her language, culture, ideological perspective, etc. Professor Lance Hewson has developed a translation criticism approach for identifying, describing and accounting for the differences between literary translations and their source texts. Indeed, voice effects (translation choices that modify the voice of the narrator and/or characters) and interpretation effects (choices that change the way the reader is likely to interpret the text) can be pinpointed and collated in order to evaluate the degree of divergence between text and translation. I will apply Hewson’s approach to one contemporary rewriting of Cinderella, Emma Donoghue’s “The Tale of the Shoe”, and Valérie Cossy’s French translation of the tale. Donoghue’s version “queers” the well-known tale in all senses of the term. While she clearly pays homage both to the classic versions by the Grimms and Perrault and to her literary foremothers, she also incorporates dramatic changes to motifs and plotlines. Through her innovative use of those two quintessential elements of the fairy tale, magic and metamorphosis, Donoghue questions conventional depictions of gender roles and desire and offers the reader new possibilities for identification. We will see that Cossy’s translation transforms Donoghue’s rewriting once again. The translator has adjusted the style of the source text both to meet the target readership’s expectations of how the text should “read”, and to align it with important paratextual and cotextual features of the French publication. Metamorphosis is again apparent: the translator does rewrite Donoghue to some extent, and the result is a partially effective re-appropriation of “The Tale of the Shoe” for the new context, but with an unfortunate flattening of certain key moments in the story which lessens its impact.
36 Raymonde ROBERT, Université Nancy 2, France
The understated reasons why we love Perrault’s Cendrillon
From an unhistorical and literary point of view, Perrault’s Cendrillon is an absolute masterpiece. Clear and objective reasons explain the fact: simplicity of vocabulary and of syntax, a structure that is perfectly balanced with marvels both extraordinary and realistic and with few but essential characters. All of this fits with our customary representation of folkloristic ways of storytelling. But this perfect correlation with our modern definition of popular fairy tales has to be revisited, above all because the simplicity (the “naïveté” praised by Mlle de Lhéritier) refers to popular classes and to childhood, each of which was deprecated in Perrault’s time, while we consider them synonymous with genuineness and truth (cf. the theory of German romanticists). If now we consider Basile’s version as well as versions of the Cinderella tale collected by folklorists in the modern period, it appears that the psychological simplicity and clarity that inform Perrault’s Cendrillon differs profoundly from the psychological turmoil that drives other Cinderella tales all over the world. Some of them use Cinderella’s mother as a persecutor; all of them speak of hatreds which do not result in loss of social standing, but produce threats of bodily harm, risks of starving, horrifying cannibalism, attempted murders, and actual murders, sometimes performed by the heroine herself (Basile). Marvels are never explained or rationalized, there are graves from which strange things appear, murdered persons come back to life. In contrast to Perrault’s picture of a world in order and secure, that extraordinary psychological turmoil refers to desires and impulses which are far more frightening than the fear of puberty and sexuality often cited by psychologists when they discuss fairy tales. Perrault defined the fairy tale as a “conte de nourrice,” which perfectly matches Bettelheim’s own definition. But bearing in mind the many violent folkloristic versions of the tale, we must pose a fundamental question : how is it that so many people have told Cinderella tales in such uncontrolled, unclear, and unreasonable ways ?
37 Mariarosa ROSSITTO, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
Cenerentola: metamorfosi novecentesche e rintocchi satirici
Sono molte le avventure testuali vissute da Cenerentola nel Novecento, anche attraverso generi diversi. Alcune hanno valore di documento storico, come l’adattamento realizzato in Italia nel Ventennio fascista da Nonno Ebe; altre si inseriscono in un felice gioco letterario che si serve della celebre fiaba come materia prima per realizzare continuazioni parodiche, “fiabe a ricalco”, racconti metatestuali, controfiabe, riscritture in versi, etc. Tofano immagina una Cenerentola ben decisa a non rinunciare alle proprie incombenze domestiche, che viene ripudiata dal Re, stufo dei comportamenti della Regina massaia e sobillato dalle invidiose sorellastre. Rodari sviluppa una Cenerentola “in chiave interplanetaria”, in cui l’elemento tecnologico sostituisce la dimensione magica e l’attualizzazione del racconto si carica di intenzioni satiriche. In Pinocchio con gli stivali di Malerba il celebre burattino fugge dal romanzo collodiano e cerca di rifugiarsi in alcune favole tradizionali, tra cui proprio Cenerentola, scontrandosi però con la resistenza dei protagonisti, che non ammettono modifiche nell’andamento consueto del racconto. Interessanti sul piano letterario, tali trasformazioni riflettono anche i cambiamenti culturali intervenuti nel corso del Novecento. Non a caso molte delle riscritture e delle attualizzazioni di Cenerentola muovono in direzione satirica, perseguendo intenti di denuncia, com’è evidente in particolare nel romanzo di Pullman, che conduce una critica sferzante nei confronti delle istituzioni e, soprattutto, della stampa e che, significativamente, mostra la protagonista femminile vittima non più di una crudele matrigna ma del ruolo di principessa.
38 Björn SUNDMARK, Malmö University, Sweden
Two “Sleeping Beauties”: The Fate of Eva Wigström’s Swedish Cinderellas
In this paper I am going to focus on two “Cinderellas” collected by the Swedish pioneer folklorist and writer Eva Wigström during walking expeditions (1879-80) in Skåne in the south part of Sweden. The tales are “Trähätta” [Wood-cap] and “Fågeln med guldskrinet” [The Bird with the Golden Box]. “Wood-cap” is a version of AT 510 B while “The Bird with the Golden Box” is a version of AT 510 A, that is, the classic Cinderella. Both tales have interesting features. “Wood-cap” has more magical traits than is common in the “rational” 510 B; and “The Bird with the Golden Box” displays influences from both Charles Perrault and the Brothers Grimm – or at the very least from the broad-sheet versions of these Cinderellas. Both of these tales are Swedish ec(h)o-types of the Cinderella motif. They echo central European texts and situate them in a specific Swedish context. But the tales are also interesting since they are part of a collection which had to wait like sleeping beauty for a hundred years before it was finally printed and published (1985). The paper explores a number of possibilities why the book was suppressed for so long. Wigström, who herself was of peasant stock, did not want an embellished publication with illustrations and sanitized language, catering to the well-to-do. If she had accepted this it is likely that the book would have been published promptly. Neither did she want a narrow scholarly publication; her stated aim with the book was to reach the general reading public. Another complicating factor is her gender. She complains in some letters that if she had been a man, the book would not have been so offensive. Finally, it is likely that the provenance of the tales – Skåne – with its liminal Danish-Swedish status was less appealing for the general reading public than if the tales had originated in the heart of the country.
39 Stefano TEDESCHI, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
Cenerentola in viaggio: le molte versioni ispanoamericane
La favola e il tema di Cenerentola ha trovato nel vasto continente americano differenti e svariate declinazioni. La favola ha conosciuto una serie di riscritture nella letteratura per bambini e per ragazzi del continente, in cui il personaggio ha assunto identità mutevoli: giovane india, ragazza delle classi popolari ecc. Si sono poi avute riletture narrative contemporanee, soprattutto in area messicana, che hanno evidenziato la conflittualità tra i personaggi femminili e una società ancora segnata da una forte dominanza maschile: in questo caso il tema della ‘cenerentola’ è diventato il sottofondo per ambientare storie di donne, spesso intrise di amarezza e delusione. Si è anche assistito a trasposizioni cinematografiche e televisive dai contorni indefiniti e spesso destinate al pubblico di massa delle telenovelas. La relazione vuole descrivere questo itinerario, presentando i casi più emblematici e significativi, ed in particolare si soffermerà sull’analisi di alcuni racconti contemporanei messicani, come “Cenicienta humillada” di Paola Tinoco e “Sueño de arena” di Iris García Cuevas.
40 Silvia TOSCANO, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
La “Cenerentola” di Prokof’ev, un balletto classico di epoca sovietica
Sergej Prokof’ev lavorò alla partitura di un nuovo balletto narrativo in tre atti, dopo la felice esperienza di Romeo e Giulietta, dal 1941 al 1944. La favola di Perrault aveva già avuto numerosi adattamenti per la danza, specie in Russia, la scelta dello stesso soggetto da parte del compositore e del librettista Nikolaj Volchov potrebbe quindi stupire dato il periodo storico in questione ed anche apparire poco originale. Quello che ne risultò fu invece un lavoro straordinario, di grande impatto, che oscurò tutti i precedenti, dove il messaggio finale ‘la bontà in trionfo sugli ostacoli’ non fu caricato di eccessivi riferimenti contemporanei, ma riuscì ugualmente a dare una risposta alla tragicità del momento affermando la capacità dell’arte di ‘trasfigurare la realtà in simboli fantastici’ e fornire così un messaggio di bellezza e speranza. Scrivendo del suo balletto, inoltre, Prokof’ev sottolineò esplicitamente di considerare la favola “essenzialmente come la cornice per una rappresentazione di autentici esseri umani con le loro passioni e le loro debolezze, in modo tale che gli spettatori non possano non partecipare alle loro gioie e ai loro dolori”. La prima rappresentazione al Bol’shoj di Mosca nel 1945 (coreografia di R. Zacharov, interpreti Ol’ga Lepeshinskaja, poi Michail Gabovic) fu accolta con un enorme successo; l’anno successivo al Kirov di Leningrado fu proposto un nuovo allestimento (coreografia di K. Sergeev, interpreti lo stesso Sergeev e Natal’ja Dudinskaja), segno dell’interesse grande del pubblico e delle istituzioni sovietiche. Nel contributo per il Convegno vorrei approfondire il significato della Cenerentola (Zolushka) di Prokof’ev nel contesto in cui fu scritto, soffermandomi sulle due prime messe in scena e comprendere le motivazioni che ne hanno fatto un classico del teatro di danza con decine di nuovi allestimenti in tutto il mondo.
41 Laura TOSI, University Ca’ Foscari of Venice, Italy
The “Cinderella Novel”, from Fairy tale to Fiction
In her “Asputtle or The Mother’s Ghost” (1987) Angela Carter tries to resist the temptation to add motivation and plausibility to the Cinderella story. This can be achieved, for example, by taking brief “inferential walks”, to use Umberto Eco’s phrase in Lector in Fabula (1979), into the characters’ past relations. Carter argues that if the stepmother’s daughters were really the father’s daughters, that would make his speedy marriage and the stepmother’s hostility more plausible. But, as Carter concludes, “it would […] transform the story into something else, […] it would transform ‘Ashputtle’ from the bare necessity of fairy tales […] to the emotional and technical complexity of bourgeois realism”. Narrative amplification of Cinderella is not a recent phenomenon (one only needs to think of Anna Isabella Ritchie’s retelling, 1868 or C.S. Evans’ adaptation of 1919) and of course it has long been recognized that Cinderella provides a subtext for many nineteenth English novels, from Pamela to Jane Eyre (Mey 1990). A number of contemporary writers for children and YA have turned Cinderella from fairy tale into narratives that strongly resemble realistic novels while still making the fairy tale recognizable and retaining (and often emphasizing) the magical element. By pushing the boundaries between fiction and fantasy, these texts appear to steer the fairy-tale genre towards domestic realism and romance. In my paper I would like to consider a selection of these texts, which will include Gail Carson Levine’s Ella Enchanted (1996); Margaret Peterson Haddix’s Just Ella (1999), Philip Pullman’s I was a Rat (1999), Gregory Maguire’s Confessions of an Ugly Stepsister (2002) and Malinda Lo’s Ash (2009). I intend to investigate the way formal changes (interpolation of new characters and incidents, expansion of episodes and motifs, introduction of specific time and place coordinates, addition of prequels and sequels) lead to an ideological re-orientation of Cinderella. I would like to show that these “complex tales” (Harris 2001:17) do not use narrative amplification just to explore gender constructions: through the detailed descriptions of setting, exploration of character as well as the “extra information” they provide, they reshape and engage with the canon in creative ways, opening up new narrative possibilities and exploring hybrid textual spaces between genres.
42 Jan VAN COILLIE, Hogeschool-Universiteit Brussel, Belgium
Cinderella as a verbo-pictural story
In my lecture, I study different editions of Cinderella as verbo-pictural stories, i.e. stories whose effect depends on both text and illustrations. The relation between both can be very different, as the illustrations can not only depict the story, but also complete or even change or contradict it (Nikolajeva & Scott, 2001). As such, illustrators ‘adapt’ stories in images, stories which often are themselves already adaptations of a certain source text. Both illustrator and translator transfer a message into a new one, constantly making choices. They can preserve certain elements, omit or add others or change or restructure them. These choices are interesting because they often clearly reveal specific norms and values and they influence the way the story functions. In my study I focus on the different ways text and illustrations influence the creative, emotional, divertive and formative function. More specifically I concentrate on the tension between recognition and alienation, the strategies used to create suspense or humor and the way the core message is presented. My corpus exists of several versions of Cinderella, published in the Netherlands and Flanders since 1840. My intention is to interpret the adaptations in relation to evolving ideas about society and the position of the child in it.
43 Katia VANDENBORRE, Université Libre de Brusselles, Belgium
The Polish Cinderella(s)
By virtue of her universality, it is widely acknowledged that Cinderella is well-known in Poland. On the other hand one may reasonably suppose that only few critics are aware that Polish writers appropriated her story and created Polish Cinderellas, which is why we seek to examine three very original, but also very different Polish re-writings of the Cinderella fairy tale. The first one is a philosophical re-interpretation by Bolesław Leśmian in his poem Cinderella (Kopciuszek, 1936). The metaphysical transformation of the tale is intimately related to the poet’s philosophical conception of the fairy tale, which is seen as an epistemological way to reach the mystery of being. Our analysis of the poem aims to show how the poetic transformation of Cinderella’s tale allows Leśmian to realize his premise. The second text is also entitled Cinderella (Kopciuszek, 1960). Ludwik Hieronim Morstin’s play, which takes place at the foot of the Tatra Mountains, is a ‘regional’ and ‘local’ version of Cinderella. Although Morstin updates the social aspect of Cinderella, there is no comparison with the modernity of Janusz Głowacki’s dramatic fairy tale Slattern (Kopciuch, 1979). The play takes place in a reformatory, where the headmaster decides to stage Cinderella with the young female residents. This project, supported by communist authorities, draws the attention of a film director, who arrives at the reformatory to start shooting the film. However he will not be faced with the Cinderella he expected, which suggests that Głowacki uses the motive of Cinderella in a grotesque way to criticize the communist society of his time. The study of these texts will allow us to compare the three main characters and an attempt will be made to outline the main features of the Polish Cinderella.
44 Talitha VERHEIJ, University of Utrecht, Netherland
Cinderella in Dutch popular printing
In my paper I will focus on the diachronic aspects of the various Cinderella adaptations in the Dutch popular printing culture of the eighteenth and nineteenth century. The Cinderella fairy tale was widely disseminated in different popular Dutch media. It became part of our collective cultural memory and is still a well-known fairy tale today. I will demonstrate the character and range of the Dutch popular adaptations of the Cinderella tale. I will especially concentrate on the adaptations in catchpenny prints, which can be considered as the printed mass media of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. These prints are known for their remarkable long lifespan, and they paid an important contribution to the survival of many popular stories. The production of catchpenny prints took place in a dynamic relation with the demands of the contemporary public: the market influenced how and which stories were printed, and publishers anticipated strategically on the persistent popularity of those stories. By further exploring the characteristics of the selection and adaptation in popular printing, we gain more insight into processes of cultural exchange and the circulation of the Cinderella tale across boundaries of geography, class and age. In this paper, I will elaborate on the commercial strategies that specific publishers used to exploit the fairy tale in as many different media as possible. By examining the field of production with a network analysis and empirical research of stock lists, I will expose the relation between producers and the different popular media and reveal organized processes of selection and adaptation. Moreover, I will illustrate the influence of the international adaptation of Cinderella prints in the Netherlands. This is all the more interesting because it seems the French print in particular, containing Perrault´s version of the Cinderella tale, stimulated the Dutch print production and was responsible for the Dutch adaptation of the tale in this medium specifically. I will also take into account the influence of censorship and new ideologies, the standardization of the content and the ways in which the tale became increasingly adapted for children during the nineteenth century. Thus, my paper will reflect upon the characteristics of the selection and adaptation of the Cinderella tale in various Dutch popular print media in the eighteenth and nineteenth century, with an attendance for their contemporary cultural context. In my conclusion I will argue that the development of these adaptations were dependent on the dynamic relation between the characteristics of the medium, the story and the producers, distributors and consumers.
45 Ryszard WAKSMUND, Dorota MICHULKA, University of Wroclaw, Poland
Cinderella in Polish Drama and Theatre
The story of Cinderella needed the whole 19th century to assert its presence in the mind of the Polish audience, mainly because of educators’ reluctance towards fairy tale fantasy. As late as in the second half of that century it began to reach the young audience, becoming an inspiration for plays, especially in home or amateur theatres. That is why the very first plays were publications for children and mass audiences. In the 19th and 20th centuries, two dominant stage interpretations functioned: Cinderella as a fantasy story (drama fairy tale) or as a metaphor (realistic play). Fantasy versions were intended for children, while the metaphoric ones for adults and young adults. At first, the authors were little known playwrights with educational ambitions (Ludwik Niemojowski, Michalina Zielińska-Grzymała, Zofia Wojnarowska, Franciszka Gensówna, Elwira Korotyńska) or the creators of so-called folk theatre (Malwina Janowska, Antoni Jax). Only under the influence of modernism did the motif of Cinderella start to draw attention in the realms of popular theatre (Adolf Walewski, Tymoteusz Ortym) and professional plays for children – especially puppetry performances (Janina Kilian-Stanisławska, Jan Brzechwa), – while it had to compete with the famous film script by Russian writer Evgeny Shvarts. In the case of adult audiences, the most important was the play with convention, re-evaluating the Cinderella myth on the example of a young contemporary heroine, whose struggle for self-realization leads either to suffering (Ludwik Hieronim Morstin) or to destruction (Janusz Głowacki). The Polish theatre of the 20th century was also focused on plays for children which emphasized ludic and grotesque qualities. However, Głowacki’s Cinders (1979), being a possible allegory for the corrupting force of totalitarianism, proved to be quite a challenge for ambitious theatres.
46 Wardle Mary, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
Cinderella through the Kaleidoscope: multicultural discourse in the English-speaking tradition
In his introduction to Marian Roalfe Cox’s 1893 investigation, Andrew Lang observes that “[t]he märchen is a kaleidoscope: the incidents are the bits of coloured glass. Shaken, they fall into a variety of attractive forms; some forms are fitter than others, survive more powerfully, and are more widely spread.” And indeed, the kaleidoscope metaphor seems most apt to describe each new incarnation that the Cinderella tale takes on, through the ages and across the globe, with the repetition of identical or similar elements, somehow providing fresh insight and renewed inspiration. Today’s Cinderella comes to us through a long and varied history with no single writer, be it Basile, Perrault, the Grimm brothers or more anonymous story-tellers, being able to lay claim to her origins. As with most fairytales, so Cinderella’s roots stretch back to the oral tradition of folktales, with different versions appearing in most parts of the world, handed down from one generation to the next, travelling from one locale to another, absorbing influences and being shaped by them. Whether we classify these variations according to the types outlined by Aarne and Thompson (more recently revised by Uther) or Propp’s functions, certain constants continue to emerge and it is the repositioning of these traditional elements within new contexts, including modern media, that create the vast intertext that Cinderella has become, giving rise to new social discourses, more appropriate to modern, multicultural constituencies. This paper will analyse a number of contemporary retellings available today to an English-speaking audience. The constituency towards which the majority of these texts is aimed is that of young children who are either still being read to or who are moving their first steps towards becoming independent readers themselves. They reflect the international character of the Cinderella story but are also a clear indicator of the multicultural appeal for their young readership (but also for the parents and educators who ultimately choose these texts) : versions include Anklet for a Princess: a Cinderella story from India, Adelita: a Mexican Cinderella story, each with their localised cultural elements (Cinduri carries water pots on her head and feeds rice to the peacocks and green parrots in the former, while Adelita eats beans and tortilla and the accompanying illustrations show a crucifix on the wall in the latter) or Sootface: an Ojibwa Cinderella story with Native Canadian elements such as the cooking of deer meat or the sought-after Prince role taken on by a mighty, invisible warrior. The paper, integrated with ample iconographic material, will investigate how the English-speaking tradition has adapted once again to represent the truly kaleidoscopic nature of the modern Cinderella.
47 Monika WOZNIAK, Sapienza University of Roma, Italia
Imagining Polish Cinderella
The process of accommodation of classic fairy-tales into new historical and cultural frameworks is a well known fact, and has been widely analyzed and studied in various national contexts. On the other hand, the ‘nationalization’ of the iconographic tradition in a given cultural environment has so far been given less critical attention. In my paper, I would like to discuss the evolution of Polish illustrations of Cinderella in order to identify their similarities and differences with regard to the universal iconographic tradition. In particular, I am interested in exploring two issues: firstly, the dynamics of the interaction between the stories of a ‘nationalized’ Cinderella and ‘Polish’ images that accompany them; and secondly, diachronic transformations or the perpetuation of a national iconography considered as an autonomous phenomenon, independent from the texts of the tale. The following visual elements will be taken into consideration:
contents: clothing, houses, location
selection of depicted scenes
recurring compositional schemes
realistic vs metaphorical approach to the represented text.
48Angela YANNICOPOULU, Helen PASCHALIDOU, University of Athens, Greece
The image of Cnderella in children’s picturebooks
Cinderella is a very popular tale among children in Greece and her story has circulated in many picturebooks, that present unique visual versions of the well known tradditional tale. In addition, Cinderella appears in fractured tales (such as Cinder Elly) and in a number of picturebooks that are not exclusively confined to her story (e.g. The Jolly Postman). Above all, Cinderella is a popular cultural image that children come across through many media, such as print ads (e.g. Louis Vuitton), opera, Greek films (e.g. Modern Cinderella) etc.
In all those texts Cinderella has not gain a unique image and, although she is more recognizable in her Disney figure, she is presented in many different ways concerning beauty, nationality, age and even sex (see Prince Cinders). It is worth noting that the way Cinderella looks influences the ideology of the story. A male Cinderella does not any more communicate a story about a passive girl who dreams of being chosen, but becomes a rather feminist one. An ugly Cinderella challenges the old assumption that judges girls only by their appearances. The age of the girl is desicive to the meaning of the story; if she is very young, it focuses on inter-family violence, while if she is presented as a young lady, romance takes predominance. Moreover, if Cinderella comes from different cultures (e.g. The Persian Cinderella, The Corean Cinderella, Cinderella an Islamic tale), the tale becomes a multicultural text. Furthermore, the image of the minor characters, such as the ugly sisters or the ‘prince’ (e.g. Cinder Wellie), as well as the symbols, e.g. the glass slipper, are very important for the tale’s meaning. If Cindrerella’s sisters are overpresented in the illustration, the tale becomes a story of rivalry among siblings. And if the famous slipper is replaced by a loafer (see Cinder Edna), it leads the prince to a non passive Cinderella. In this paper we examine, apart from the image of the story agents, the way the settings and the symbols are presented in today’s children’s picturebooks. Moreover we speculate the iconological interprentations of Cinderella. It seems that as the image of the beloved girl changes, the tale formulates a different meaning and gains a new ideology.
49 Ingrida ŽINDŽIUVIENE, Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania
“Lithuanization” of the Image of Cinderella: The Blend of Identities
The article focuses on the translation and adaptation of the fairy tale Cinderella into Lithuanian. The influence of different historical periods, social climates and cultural traditions on the translation and adaptation of this fairy tale are analyzed. Both textual and visual representations of the fairy tale are discussed within the scope of the traditions of children’s literature in Lithuania. The image of Cinderella from its first versions in Lithuanian is surveyed: the development of the representation, the display of permanent canonical elements of the fairy tale, its types and features, arrangement of the components and their literary and visual interpretation. Emphasis is placed on the dynamics of the cultural adaptation of the fairy tale into Lithuanian during the twentieth century, focusing on the differences in representation during the second half of the twentieth century: political and social events in Lithuania determined significant changes in the cultural domain, causing alterations of a number of elements of the fairy tale. The paper also discusses the influence of this fairy tale on different national images in Lithuanian fairy tales, determining the close relationship between the identities of different cultures and traditions. The paper will show how the Westernized image of Cinderella influences the national one, and which ethnic elements contribute to the universal image. The analysis encompasses research into the characters of the fairy tale, description of the setting and development of the plot in Lithuanian versions of Cinderella. Some questions of cultural adaptation and differences between the Western and the Lithuanian traditions of representation of the fairy tale are considered. Other issues discussed in the article include the following: the investigation of the transfer of folklore, analysis of cultural realities, description of types of metamorphosis, development of the secondary characters, changes in the opening and closure of the fairy tale, space and time structuring.